Post-crash fuel leakage and fire safety experiments for hydrogen vehicles
- Published: U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Paper Number 11-0439, 2011
- Authors: Hennessey, B., Reuther, J.J., John, J.S., Shawcross, P.E., & Kimmel, G.
- Date Added: 06 Feb 2014
- Last Update: 06 Feb 2014
To access the safety of the proposed allowable leak rate for hydrogen, through leak ignition experiments in and around vehicles and vehicle compartment simulators.
Experiments: Leak rate vs. concentration build-up in and around an intact automobile; Ignition and combustion tests in an automobile compartment simulator containing known concentrations of hydrogen; full-scale leak, ignition and fire tests on intact and crashed automobiles.
Data indicated that leak rate was not the most important metric when identifying minimum allowable post-crash leak rate.
Instead, the volume of hydrogen leaked into the automobile compartments to accumulate locally to 5%, or to a level exceeding the lower flammability limit of 4% is important.
All accumulation of hydrogen within passenger compartments should be avoided.
More than one sensor in vehicle compartments may be required for alarm purposes.
Vehicles that vent passenger compartments upon impact are warranted.Flammability tests on fabrics exposed to hydrogen or hydrogen flames may have merit.
Post-crash, fire, hydrogen vehicles.
Hydrogen vehicle experiments.