Development of Nissan Approaching Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians

  • Published: NHTSA, Paper Number 11- 0097, 2010
  • Authors: Tabata, T., Konet, H., & Kanuma, T.
  • Date Added: 06 Feb 2014
  • Last Update: 06 Feb 2014
  • Format: pdf


To address concerns of low noise emission increasing risk for vulnerable road users, especially visually-impaired pedestrians, the approaching Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians (VSP) system has been developed by Nissan.


Discussion of the development of Nissan’s Approaching Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians (VSP) system.

Key Findings:

  • Designed for implementation in Nissan’s first mass produced Electric Vehicle, the VSP emits one type of sound during forward motion, another type during ‘take-off’, when the vehicle first begins to move and a third type of sound for reverse motion.

  • The characteristics of the sound profile utilise knowledge of human ear sensitivity, age-related hearing loss, typical background noise conditions and visually-impaired pedestrian feedback and preferences gathered by surveys in Japan and USA.


Low noise vehicles, vulnerable road users, VSP, Nissan, EV.