Human factors aspects of using head up displays in automobiles: A review of the literature

  • Published: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) 1995
  • Authors: Gish, K. W., & Staplin, L.
  • Date Added: 28 Mar 2015
  • Last Update: 28 Mar 2015
  • Format: pdf


This document provides an overview of studies investigating the use of HUDs by aviators and drivers, including a summary of HUD research variables, test procedures and study results.


Literature review . The authors do not describe the methodology they employed to identify pertinent articles, but review several dozen important papers in the area.

Key Findings:

  • The predicted performance advantages of automotive HUDs include increased eyes-on-the-road time and reduced re-accommodation time, particularly for the older driver.

  • To date, the research does not provide robust evidence for operationally significant performance advantages due to HUDS.

  • However, conclusions are equivocal due to the interaction of independent variables such as workload, display complexity and age.