Children

Children

How Effective?

  • Interventions are often evaluated in different ways, and this makes it difficult to compare findings effectively. A number of evaluations claim that awareness of particular issues was increased but there is little evidence to suggest that this awareness has led to an improvement in child behaviour at the roadside or a reduction in child pedestrian casualties. Reductions in child pedestrian casualties may be attributed to a number of factors which will include a combination of education, engineering and enforcement interventions. The following section outlines some interventions that have been deemed effective.
  • A Traffic Club booklet for parents of children aged 5-8 years old was produced during a 2003 pilot study. The booklet helped parents to teach traffic skills and comprehension to their own children. Use can yield up to a 20 per cent fall in ‘dart-out’ RTIs.

(S. Wood et al, 2003)

  • Traffic clubs using age-paced materials designed to promote parental teaching have been shown to be more effective than school based traffic clubs in effecting behaviour change.

(E. Towner et al, 2005)

  • The Kerbcraft programme is firmly based on learning theories and educational evidence and was designed to enhance pedestrian skills in 5-7 year olds children over a period of 12-18 months. Studies have shown that there is strong statistical evidence of the positive impact of training in all three Kerbcraftskills:

    • Recognising safe versus dangerous crossing places;

    • Crossing safely at parked cars; and,

    • Crossing safely near junctions.

(K. Whelan, et al, 2008)

  • Stepping Out is a road safety pedestrian training scheme for 7-9 year olds offered by Staffordshire County Council to schools across Staffordshire. Evaluation results showed that children who received Stepping Out had significantly better road safety knowledge scores than those who did not receive the training.

(L. Hillyard, 2010)

  • Making Choices is an educational road safety programme, designed to ensure that children have developed the skills required to match the independence they are given when they move to secondary school. During research children that had been involved in the Making Choices scheme tended to show a greater level of personal responsibility than the control group.

(C.V. Platt et al, 2003)

  • An evaluation of 20 mph zones in the UK proved to be effective both in reducing traffic speed and in reducing RTIs. In particular child pedestrian injuries were reduced by 70 per cent from 1.24 per year in each area before to 0.37 per year after the zones were introduced.

(E. Towner et al, 2005)

  • Traffic calming measures in villages can yield reductions in speed. RTIs involving vulnerable road users aged under 16 year olds were reduced following scheme installation. Child pedestrian KSI RTIs were reduced by 75 per cent.The most substantial measures (physical features and signing/marking measures with high visual impact) would be the most effective in terms of speed and RTI reduction.

(TRL, 2000)

  • In the mid 1990s Hull City Council launched a programme of implementing 20 mph speed limit zones to tackle casualty rates for child pedestrians as they were well above the national average. On average, each zone reduced child pedestrian injuries by 75 per cent. The Council also saw a first year economic rate of return from these schemes of 1,160 per cent and crash reductions saved an estimated £35m, by 2002.

(N. Christie et al, 2004)

  • A combination of speed reduction measures such as speed cameras and traffic calming (i.e. road narrowings, chicanes, road humps, road signs) can prove to be effective in preventing 70 per cent of RTIs involving children.

(ETSC, 2005)

Gaps in research

  • Many of the education based interventions discussed in this synthesis have not been subject to rigorous peer reviewed assessment and evaluation.

  • Road safety programmes combining educational and environmental measures in an integrated package show some potential but more rigorous research is required.

(E. Towner et al, 2005)

 

  • Date Added: 03 Apr 2012, 08:17 AM
  • Last Update: 27 Jan 2017, 04:44 PM