DRUID Final Report: Work Performed, Main Results and Recommendations

  • Published: DRUID Final Report, 2012
  • Authors: H. Schulze, M. Schumacher, R. Urmeew, and K. Auerbach
  • Date Added: 28 Mar 2013
  • Last Update: 16 May 2014
  • Format: pdf


Overall objective was to provide scientific support to EU road safety policy by making evidence based recommendations concerning combating driving under the influence of psychoactive substances (DRUID; DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs and medicines). The final report summarises the objectives of DRUID and presents the main results from the 7 work packages.


Thirty-seven organisations from across 19 European countries took part in the project. The work packages involved evidence reviews, epidemiological studies, experimental studies, qualitative research and quantitative research. Topics covered included epidemiology, enforcement and classification of medicines.

Key Findings:

  • Roadside surveys found that the prevalence of alcohol in traffic was higher (3.48 per cent) than for illicit drugs (1.90 per cent) or medicinal drugs (1.36 per cent). The prevalence of alcohol was significantly higher in male than female drivers.

  • Alcohol was the most prevalent substance detected in those injured or killed in an accident (prevalence of alcohol alone was between 15-30 per cent across the different countries, except Portugal (40 per cent)).

  • Consumption of alcohol (>50mg/100ml) alone or in combination with other drugs caused the highest accident risk compared to other psychoactive substances.

  • The risk of being killed or seriously injured was estimated as:

- Medium increased risk for drivers with BACs between 50-80mg alcohol per 100ml blood.

- Highly increased risk for drivers with BACs between 80-120mg alcohol per 100ml blood.

- Extremely increased risk for drivers with BACs over 120mg alcohol per 100ml blood.

  • Qualitative research with those addicted to alcohol showed that respondents did not believe that alcohol would impair their driving.

  • Drink Drive Rehabilitation courses show a 46 per cent average reduction in recidivism rate (range from 15-71 per cent, based on 61 studies). However, the robustness of this finding is uncertain.


Alcohol, drugs, medicines, driving, risk, prevalence.


Large and in-depth study. Data collection problematic in some countries.